What scientists never do when confronted by even severe and prolonged anomalies [is] renounce the paradigm that led them into crisis. … A scientific theory is declared invalid only if an alternate candidate is available to take its place. 

—Thomas Kuhn

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According to the book of Genesis, God created Eve from one of Adam’s ribs. As a result, Judeo-Christian tradition long held that men had one fewer rib than women. Despite the abundance of available evidence to the contrary, that belief survived for some fifteen hundred years, until the Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius, a pioneer of modern anatomy and a champion of medical dissection, finally showed otherwise.